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One million additional tickets for your trip within Germany for as little as EUR To the south of Scotland is the border with England.
Scotland was once an independent country and had its own monarch , but is now in a union with England, Wales and Northern Ireland , which we now call the United Kingdom.
In , the parliament of Scotland joined with the parliament of England to become the Parliament of Great Britain. Even though Scotland is currently not independent, throughout history it has had its own legal system and culture.
It was devolved from the British parliament , which still controls many things regarding Scotland. On 18 September , a referendum on independence from the United Kingdom took place.
The Flag of Scotland is blue with a white diagonal cross. This is the cross of Saint Andrew , who is the patron saint of Scotland.
Some other symbols used for Scotland are a thistle , and a lion rampant. The capital city of Scotland is Edinburgh on the east coast, but the biggest city is Glasgow on the west coast.
The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. Scotland's land are also includes several islands, including the Inner and Outer Hebrides off the west coast and the archipelagoes of Orkney and Shetland to the north of the mainland.
The north of Scotland has many mountains, and few people live there. Most people live in the lowlands Edinburgh , Glasgow , Aberdeen and Dundee , or around the coast.
South of the central belt are the Southern Uplands , another hilly place. On the west coast and in the north are a lot of islands. The tallest mountain in Scotland is Ben Nevis , which is also the tallest mountain in the British Isles.
The history of Scotland begins around 1, years ago, when humans first began to live in Scotland after the end of the last ice age.
These people did not have writing. The written history of Scotland begins when the Roman Empire came to Britain, and the Romans invaded what is now England and Wales , calling it Britannia.
To the north was Caledonia , land not owned by the Romans. Its people were the Picts. This meant the Scottish were not affected by the Romans in the same way the English were.
The sea was very important for trade reasons. Because of where Scotland is in the world and its strong reliance on trade routes by sea, the nation held close links in the south and east with the Baltic countries, and through Ireland with France and Europe.
Following the Acts of Union and Industrial Revolution , Scotland grew to be one of the largest commercial, intellectual and industrial states in Europe.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were many military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
The First War — began with the English invasion of Scotland in , and ended with the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton in The Second War — began with the English -supported invasion of Scotland by Edward Balliol and the 'Disinherited' in , and ended around with the signing of the Treaty of Berwick.
The wars were part of a great national crisis for Scotland and the period became one of the most important moments in the nation's history.
At the end of both wars, Scotland still was a free and independent country, which was its main aim throughout the conflict. The wars were also important for other reasons, such as the invention of the longbow as an important weapon in medieval warfare.
A series of deaths in the line of succession in the s, followed by King Alexander III 's death in left the Scottish crown in crisis.
His granddaughter, Margaret, the "Maid of Norway" , a four-year-old girl, was the heir. Edward I of England , as Margaret's great-uncle, suggested that his son also a child and Margaret should marry, stabilising the Scottish line of succession.
In Margaret's guardians agreed to this, but Margaret herself died in Orkney on her voyage from Norway to Scotland of sea sickness before she was made Queen, or her wedding could take place.
Because there was no clear heir to the throne anymore, the Scottish people decided to ask Edward I of England to choose their king.
The strongest candidate was called Robert Bruce. Robert Bruce had castles all around the country, and had a private army. But Edward wanted to invade Scotland, so he chose the weaker candidate, who was John Balliol.
He had the strongest claim to the throne, and became king on 30 November Robert Bruce decided to accept this decision his grandson and namesake later took the throne as Robert I.
Over the next few years, Edward I kept trying to undermine both the authority of King John and the independence of Scotland.
In , John, on the recommendation of his chief councillors, entered into an alliance with France. This was the beginning of the Auld Alliance.
In , Edward invaded Scotland. He removed King John from power, and put him in jail. The following year William Wallace and Andrew de Moray raised an army from the southern and northern parts of the country to fight the English.
Under their joint leadership, an English army was defeated at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. Edward came north in person and defeated Wallace at the Battle of Falkirk in Wallace escaped but resigned as Guardian of Scotland.
John Comyn and Robert the Bruce were put in his place. In Wallace was captured by the English, who executed him for treason.
Wallace claimed he did not commit treason as he was not loyal to England. Bruce went on to take the crown, but Edward's army overran the country yet again after defeating Bruce's small army at the Battle of Methven.
Despite the excommunication of Bruce and his followers by Pope Clement V , his support slowly strengthened; and by , with the help of leading nobles such as Sir James Douglas and the Earl of Moray , only the castles at Bothwell and Stirling were still under English control.
Edward I died in Carlisle in His heir, Edward II , moved an army north to break the siege of Stirling Castle and again take control.
Robert defeated that army at the Battle of Bannockburn in , securing temporary independence. In , a letter to the Pope from the nobles of Scotland the Declaration of Arbroath went part of the way towards convincing Pope John XXII to overturn the earlier excommunication and cancel the various acts of submission by Scottish kings to English ones so that Scotland's independence could be recognised by other European countries.
In , the first full Parliament of Scotland met. The parliament was made from an earlier council of nobility and clergy around , but in representatives of the burghs—the burgh commissioners—joined them to form the Three Estates.
In the face of tough Scottish resistance, led by Sir Andrew Murray , attempts to secure Balliol on the throne failed. Balliol finally resigned his empty claim to the throne to Edward in , before retiring to Yorkshire, where he died in Most of the Scottish islands were ruled by the Norse and then by Norwegians and Danes for over four hundred years.
This includes the Hebrides to the west and Orkney and Shetland to the north. The islands still have a culture of their own.
When Ireland joined in , the United Kingdom was created. In , a majority of voters in Scotland chose to have their own Scottish Parliament , which was set up in Former First Minister of Scotland Alex Salmond led the Scottish National Party to government in Scotland in and won an overall majority in , taking 69 out of seats.